Architectural Exclusion: A Summary of Schindler’s Article

From iftheriverswells.com Architectural exclusion is when man-made, built environments are designed to exclude certain types or groups of people. Schindler gives several examples of this throughout the article. One of the examples of this would be exclusion through the subway system. Often, rich communities in Atlanta are against allowing MARTA to have stops in their neighborhoods, because they know that this will encourage the poor and people of color to come there. It will also stop them from getting jobs in the area because they will not have a ride to work. Schindler also talks about how white residents in a suburban community once had a road closed because it gave a nearby, black neighborhood access to their area. They even covered it up by saying that closing the road would help reduce traffic. According to the N.Y. Times article “Where has the Northern State Gone?” written by Philip Lutz, Robert Moses, known as the “Master Builder” of New York, wanted to build “low-hanging overpasses on the Long Island parkways that led to Jones beach…so that buses could not pass under them.” Schindler then explains that this affected the people of color and poor people because they were that ones that rode the bus the most. This means they were excluded from going to Jones Beach. Architectural exclusion also, serves as a regulator, keeping people of color and poor people separated from everyone else. An example of this would be the fact that park benches are designed to have armrests so that homeless people will not sleep comfortably on them. This type of regulation is discreet because to most...

Summary #1

“Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination And Segregation Through Physical Design Of The Built Environment.” This article goes into discussing architectural exclusion. It is separated into 2 sections. The first section is Theories of architectural exclusion and the other section consists of the practice of architectural exclusion. Within these sections it goes into detail. The first section of “Theory” discusses architecture as a regulation. It starts out saying that there are 3 forms of discrimination, two legal, one not: exclusion through law, exclusion through threats, and “the third form, which I refer to as architecture, is not” (Schindler 1942). Schindler moves on to discuss the first topic, Architecture as Regulation. She discusses how people don’t necessarily pay attention to the features of an environment. Schindler says, For example, one might think it a simple aesthetic design decision to create a park bench that is divided into three individual seats with armrests separating those seats. Yet the bench may have been created this way to prevent people – often homeless people – from lying down and taking naps. She goes on to list other specific examples and clearly states her purpose of the article. Schindler says that it is not controversial among scholars to say that the built environment is constructed the way it is in order to further political goals. Architecture is built to favor some and disfavor others, as well as being used to exclude. Schindler states. “The metaphorical use of architecture implies an underlying recognition – foundational to planners and architects – that physical design regulates and that the built environment controls human behavior” (Schindler 1947). The second part of...

Summary 1:

In the article, “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment,” Schindler exhibits a broad overview of various infrastructures exemplifying ethnic and behavioral barriers in many works. She analyzes the role of architecture segregating and causing contradictions within communities. Robert Moses, New York’s most famous architect, intentionally created low hanging overpasses so that poor and people of color could not rely on public transportation. Many rich white people opposed to accommodating transportations, because of the fear that it may increase crime. This resulted in many restrictions for access to public jobs. The restrictions limited numerous people to travel and reach areas they needed to. Barriers such as walls and fences also conflicted the transportation for the poor and colored. Access to many communities was limited and developed complications for living for several individuals. Discrimination leads to many complications for people and erroneously affected their living situations. The exclusions in the article are based on the behavior of discrimination of those who are neglected. The method of which the constructed setting associated dominates the behavior of individuals. The law has been used to create an unbalance of human interaction in which Lawrence Lessig supported. The architecture is skillfully designed to build an indistinct barrier between individuals. The architectural exclusions influence the behavior of individuals by changing their mindset of balance and equality. The law usually neglects the architectural exclusions, which empower people to create their own environmental exclusions. The law overlooks the ideas because they consider them as regulations. Several exclusions were used as barriers to restrict public access in many areas. Many of these exclusions analyze latent...

Passages from Schindler’s “Architectural Exclusion” Response Post

“Architectural regulation is powerful in part because it is unseen; it ‘allows government to shape our actions without our perceiving that our experience has been deliberately shaped'” (1940). Schindler makes a huge point here. The fact that “architectural regulation is powerful.. because it is unseen” speaks volumes. We live in a society where everything is planned for us and we don’t really recognize it; mostly because it’s in our conscious. In addition, we are puppets to the government. As they continue to manipulate and regulate us, we will continue to not realize these changes. “Another common version of this phenomenon is one of the most obvious forms of architectural exclusion: the walls, gates, and guardhouses of gated communities” (1958) Schindler is very straight forward with this statement. Walls, gates, and guardhouses of gated communities are the most obvious forms of architectural exclusion that society recognizes as a built in environment, because we notice them. Whether it be prison walls, or a neighbor’s fence, architectural exclusion is seen as a way to block out others or keep what’s in, in. “…wealthy white residents of suburban Atlanta, Georgia, suburban San Francisco, California, and Washington, D.C., have organized to oppose the locating of transit stops in their communities, at least in part because transit would enable people who live in poorer areas of the cities to easily access these wealthier areas”(1962) The rich white people who oppose transit stops in their suburban neighborhoods directly contribute to the social divide in America today. They don’t want poor people to be able to reach their area, because poor people are linked to crimes, disease,...

Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment by Sarah Schindler

Overview When we are asked to think of segregation and discrimination, our minds automatically focus on things like Jim Crow laws, which separated public facilities based on race, or the Grandfather Clause, which prevented African Americans in the 1800s from exercising their right to vote. In “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment”, Sarah Schindler brings light to an often unrecognized form of segregation. Schindler acknowledges that while norms and markets are known to regulate behavior, the built environment is not as often categorized as the important form of extra-legal regulation that it is (Schindler 1944). Manipulating the Environment Strategically organizing the built environment to further political gains is a common practice. In her article, Sarah Schindler uses examples to explain how built environments can be manipulated. For example, placing healthy foods in front of unhealthy foods in a cafeteria encourages healthier eating choices. On a larger scale, a centrally located town square encourages integration among the local community (Schindler 1948). Unfortunately, for as long as societies have existed, the built environment has also been used to exclude those who are deemed “undesirable”, which is typically people of color and people with a low income. Closed-off gated community |  houzz.com Sometimes, physical barriers are obvious. In suburbs across America, houses are built and organized in a certain way. Gated communities allow access to a specific population of people. Only those who live in the community or have business with someone who lives in the Open Grid-Pattern Streets | myreporter.com community can gain access. Schindler points out that by organizing the houses in this manner,...
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