Annotated Bibliography 4

Sherman, a student at University of Pennsylvania, used a mapping software called ArcMap to examine special relations of highway tracts and their relation to separation of whites and non-whites. The results found that in southern states had more white people near the highways, while northern states had fewer white people. This can be explained by the southern and northern opposition during the Civil War. For example, the construction of Interstate 74 created a clear racial boundary through Peoria, Illinois, which created neighborhood decay and high crime. The data from Illinois could easily be compared to Georgia’s interstate highway system and how it created different boundaries in Atlanta. This journal gives a more detailed explanation on how the construction of highways can lead to segregation in cities, intentional or not. This journal was written by an undergraduate student at the University of Pennsylvania, so it may not be perfect, although it is published to the public and backed my multiple professors, so it is safe to assume the journal is accurate. This source adds to the multiple examples collected from other sources of the ways that architecture has the ability to create segregation.     Sherman, Bradford P. “Racial Bias and Interstate Highway Planning: A Mixed Methods Approach.” College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal (2014): n. pag. Web. 1 March 2016.

Annotated Bibliography #4

GOMIS, Jordi, Carlos TURÓN, and Ramon RIPOLL. “Conceptual And Instrumental Influences In The Graphic Representation Of Urban Planning During The 20Th Century.”      Geographia Technica 10.2 (2015): 41-49. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Feb.     2016. This article discusses the instrumental and conceptual historical events that have changed graphic representation of a town. This article is broken down into 8 different sections. The first section is the introduction, it introduces the main ideas and a brief history and background. In the second section, it discusses method. Gomis says, In order to carry out a study such as this it is absolutely necessary to establish the trends that have existed in the graphic representation of planning and the main factors that have been involved, changing and transforming the drawing of urban planning throughout history (Page 31). In the next couple sections it discusses brief histories of ancient times, the middle ages, and The Renaissance to Baroque. The biggest focus is on conceptual influences and instrumental influences. I chose this source because it was very detailed and seemed informative. It is a little hard to comprehend in certain areas but mostly easy to understand. It doesn’t offer an alternative viewpoint because it is a...